STOP: Stop Tar Sands Operations Permanently

Just another WordPress.com weblog

Posts Tagged ‘kyoto’

Canadian Government Goes to Court Over Failure to Live Up to Kyoto

Posted by mhudema on November 25, 2008

Canada back in court over Kyoto lawsuit Print
For Immediate Release November 25, 2008

Appeal of KPIA decision launched a week before next
climate change meetings

OTTAWA – Lawyers for Friends of the Earth Canada gave the Government of Canada notice yesterday that they will be appealing a recent Federal Court decision in Canada’s first ever climate change lawsuit. The much anticipated appeal comes one week before the world gathers in Poznan, Poland for the next round of international climate change negotiations.

The original lawsuit was launched in June by pro bono lawyers from Paliare Roland Barristers and Ecojustice (formerly Sierra Legal Defence Fund) on behalf of Friends of the Earth Canada. They were seeking a declaration from the court that the government had failed to meet the legal requirements of the federal Kyoto Protocol Implementation Act (KPIA). These requirements include a Plan based on meeting Kyoto targets and drafting and enacting legally binding regulations to combat climate change.

Read the rest of this entry »

Advertisements

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Posted by mhudema on June 25, 2008

Green isn’t Suncor’s colour

executive director, Greenpeace Canada

Suncor CEO Rick George is correct that being green is good for a company (It’s Not Easy Being Green, But It’s Good Business – Report on Business, June 23).

Unfortunately, Suncor isn’t even close to being an environmental leader. Recently, it released its “progress” report. Some progress: It showed that Suncor’s absolute greenhouse gas emissions and its overall emission intensity had increased in 2007 from 2006. Suncor’s emissions are projected to double between 2007 and 2012, for a whopping 520-per-cent increase since 1990. That will make the tar sands, and Suncor in particular, a major factor in Canada failing dismally to achieve its Kyoto emissions-reduction target.

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

A Licence to Wreak Environmental Havok

Posted by mhudema on June 15, 2008

This project is a licence to wreak environmental havoc

Monday, 10 December 2007

This week BP announced it is buying a 50 per cent stake in Husky Energy’s tar sands development project in Alberta, Canada, to produce more than 200,000 barrels by 2020. The move in effect signals the company is ready to participate in one of the most environmentally destructive projects on the planet.

Canada’s tar sands are second only in size to the oil reserves of Saudi Arabia, with more than 149,000 sq km an area larger than all of England (130,410 sq km). Tar sands are a mixture of sand, clay and bitumen, a heavy tar-like substance that can be converted into oil. Instead of simply drilling a well, the tar sands must be strip-mined in giant open pits or mined underground with in situ technologies that inject super-heated water into the ground.

The process is very water and energy intensive. A barrel of tar sands oil requires up to five times more energy to produce than a conventional barrel and results in five times the amount of greenhouse gas emissions. The US-based World Resources Institute estimates the tar sands will soon match the entire carbon dioxide emissions of the Czech Republic. By 2020 the tar sands are expected to release more than 141 million tons of greenhouse gases annually, or more than the emissions currently produced by all the road transport in the UK 125.3 million tons in 2002).

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Ed Stelmach – Canada’s Fossil Fool

Posted by mhudema on March 31, 2008

Fresh from his provincial election landslide, Alberta Premier Ed Stelmach has snagged a more international — and dubious — title as runner-up Fossil Fool of the Year, beating out several of North America’s top energy and automaker chief executives.

Stelmach’s unwavering support for massive oilsands development in northern Alberta earned more than 25 per cent of about 6,000 votes cast worldwide in a vote organized by the San Francisco-based Energy Action Coalition.

The coalition, which represents 46 environmental groups across North America, plan to crown him “Canadian Fossil Fool of the Year” on Tuesday, April 1, to mark their newly minted Fossil Fool’s Day — targetting the energy industry across Canada and around the world.

Stelmach was nominated for his refusal to slow down the rapid pace of harvesting and refining the province’s massive oilsands deposits — a plan the coalition says has “the potential to lay waste to an area the size of the state of Florida.”

Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Cool views on hot issue

Posted by mhudema on March 31, 2008

Brian Towie/Metro Toronto

31 March 2008 09:36
brian towie/metro toronto

MuchMusic VJ Hannah Simone believes climate change will be the defining struggle for future generations.

There’s nothing quite like a little star power to raise awareness about global warming for the younger set. And when you’re Hannah Simone and Steve Jocz, you use it if you’ve got it.

Simone, a VJ at MuchMusic, Jocz and Cone McCaslin, the drummer and bassist, respectively, for Canadian pop-punk vanguard Sum 41, travelled to oil-rich Alberta for a MuchTalks television special on climate change that aired in February. Metro picked the brains of the celebrities on the front lines of coolness and where they stand on the issue.

As journalistic and objective as they had to be, the experience was a harsh eye-opener, Simone and Jocz said. Seeing the first-hand effects of large-scale pollution at the hands of a Fort McMurray oilsands drilling outfit brought them a fresh, urgent perspective that transcended the show.
Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

LIQUID ASSET

Posted by mhudema on March 28, 2008

Could the oil sands, Canada’s greatest economic project, come undone simply because no one thought about water?

ANDREW NIKIFORUK

Globe and Mail

Here in Canada, we tend to think that while water scarcity, drying rivers and toxic lakes may be huge global problems, they really only affect places like China and the Middle East. But the rapid development of Alberta’s oil sands, coupled with accelerating population growth and climate change, has turned arid Alberta into Canada’s ground zero for water. Our history is all about exploiting our abundance of natural resources, and Alberta is the embodiment of the frontier’s boundless promise. Could our tradition of taming the landscape finally have been arrested by something as humble as H20?

The water experts say yes. The Canadian dean of the discipline, the University of Alberta’s David Schindler, wrote in 2006 that Alberta, along with Saskatchewan and Manitoba, will soon face “a crisis in water quantity and quality with far-reaching implications.” Natural Resources Canada has predicted shortages for Calgary as early as 2050 if conservation efforts don’t improve drastically. The federal government’s 2007 report on the oil sands concluded that “the Athabasca basin could encounter serious problems unless there is a radical change in water use.”

While the energy boom is bringing the issue to a head, Alberta’s looming water crisis owes something to natural factors as well as human-made ones. Lying in the shadow of the Rocky Mountains, the province is one of the driest places in Canada, with but 2.2% of the nation’s fresh water. It’s also prone to long, bone-bleaching droughts. Both historical accounts and tree-ring studies show that European immigrants settled the province during the wettest century in the last 2,000 years. This data also suggests that the dust bowl of the Dirty Thirties was a minor event and that no European has ever seen the kind of 20-year droughts that have characterized Alberta’s climate over the millenniums.

In addition, Alberta shares with the rest of the nation a geographic vulnerability. Most of its water is in the north while most of its people live in the south. Albertans are concentrated in the South Saskatchewan River basin, where the city of Calgary, industry and irrigation drink lots of water. Yet the basin and its northern cousin, which drain into Hudson Bay, hold only 20% of the province’s supply. Northern rivers such as the Athabasca and the Peace carry about 80% of the province’s water into Canada’s largest watershed, the Mackenzie River basin, which drains into the Arctic.

Unlike most of the country, however, Alberta has a regulatory system that allocates blue gold on a “first in time and first in right” basis. The system “is designed to deal with shortages,” explains John Thompson, an Edmonton-based resource economist and water expert. During periods of scarcity, the rules are clear: Those who hold the oldest licences get the water; the newest ones, as Thompson puts it, must “stand back from the trough.” Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

YES MEN PARODY EXXON

Posted by mhudema on March 28, 2008

 Yes Men Parody Exxon in Calgary

from Malloriegh.com 

A group called the Yes Men impersonated oil execs at the world’s largest oil conference, held in Calgary, Alberta in 2007, apparently. Maybe it’s bullshit but I think it’s hilarious anyway. The group apparently revealed a new energy source called Vivoleum, which, like Soylent Green, uses the dead bodies of human beings. Awesome.

If you weren’t aware, there’s some shit going down in Alberta over the Athabasca Tar Sands – the most environmentally devastating oil acquisition project in the world. The Tar Sands are, if you were wondering, the reason Canada has rescinded its promise to meet Kyoto Protocol targets; our Prime Minister, one Stephen Harper, has promised Mr W Bush that Canada will more than double oil output from the Tar Sands in order to supply the USA with fuel.

Someone tell me why anyone thought this was a good idea?

Tar Sands Time Out is the Sierra Club’s official Tar Sands activism webpage. Click on to find out what you can do.

Greenpeace has a write a letter to PM Harper campaign; click to send a form letter that you can personalize.
Or find out some more about the Tar Sands.

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Why Carbon Capture is an Illusion

Posted by mhudema on March 25, 2008

Special to Globe and Mail Update

On March 10, Environment Minister John Baird released detailed regulations to address global warming. These so-called tough measures lean heavily on new technology that captures and stores greenhouse gas emissions. Mr. Baird says catching carbon emitted from coal-fired power plants and tar-sands projects, then burying it deep underground, is a large part of Canada meeting its greenhouse gas emissions targets for 2020 and 2050.

This is unlikely. Even if we set aside the fact that Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s government has set new, weaker goals so that Canada is no longer holds up its share of the Kyoto agreement, the sorry truth is that carbon capture and storage is a kind of fool’s gold — all glitter and promise, but of no real worth. It won’t enable us to meet even these weaker commitments, and it will be an expensive, diversionary tactic while Canada climbs the carbon charts.

Simply put, taking the carbon dioxide out of emissions (from a power plant or installation), and finding a safe place to tuck it away permanently isn’t easy, isn’t cheap and isn’t going to happen in time to save the climate. There are problems with the technology that no one has been able to solve on an industrial scale. Enormous amounts of money will have to be spent just to try and make it work. It really does look like the proverbial bottomless pit. Read the rest of this entry »

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a Comment »

Modern Parable: The Alberta Tar Sands

Posted by mhudema on March 25, 2008

Here’s the situation. Two rural neighbors live in a small town, one up river, and one downstream just where the river meanders into a lovely valley. They’re friendly, went to the same schools as kids, and have always exchanged kind words; in fact, they share a special bond, for both men have always rooted for the Maple Leafs, which gives them a few weeks to commiserate every spring when the Leafs fall early in the Stanley Cup playoffs.

The first man, living upstream, is a good guy. He and his wife have raised a great family. He pays his taxes, employs a handful of people from the village, attends church every Sunday, and gives generously to several charities. But every day, he walks down to the river abutting his property and pours a few hundred gallons of a harmful chemical from his business downstream. He doesn’t mean for it to happen, but over several years, the chemical leaches into the well water of a few nearby homes.

His old Maple Leafs friend is particularly hard hit. He runs a small ranch, and loses half his cattle to illness one year. A few months later, he’s inexplicably suffering from migraines and nausea, and can’t do more than a few hours of work each day. His daughter, who is asthmatic, now has to take medication to keep breathing freely, and she’s had two scary trips to the Emergency Department. And now his wife has breast cancer, and needs surgery.

Finally, the authorities investigate and trace some of the problems to his neighbor. He is told to stop pouring chemicals into the river.

The guy refuses. After all, it’s his property. Surely he has the right to dispose of chemicals on his own land, if he choses. Hauling the toxins away for safe disposal will cut his profits by half, take time away from important chores, and during the winter, it gets pretty darn cold outside. If what he’s doing is harmful, then let the government clean it up. After all, isn’t that why he pays taxes?

Stripped of all its emotional value, this problem has a simple solution. The first man is behaving irresponsibly, and must show more consideration for his neighbor’s well-being. Under no circumstances should he should be allowed to pollute the water supply and make people sick in the process.

The Alberta Tar Sands

This parable has a modern corollary being played out every day in Canada. Simply put, Alberta is home to what The Environmental Defence Fund calls The Most Destructive Project on Earth (PDF). The Alberta Tar Sands.

oil-sands.jpg

While the federal and provincial Conservative governments look the other way — all in the name of prosperity — their immediate neighbors in Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan are suffering from environmental trauma, and all of Canada suffers from the indignity of being — on a per capita basis — one of the world’s worst greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters.

For years, Alberta has polluted with nary a care for other provinces – mostly because we didn’t know any better. Now we do. So what do the people of Alberta owe us? What do the oil companies in Alberta — reaping billions in profits — owe us?

Perhaps some facts will aid your deliberations. The Tar Sands are located in Northern Alberta, comprising three major deposits that make Canada an international energy superpower, not so far removed from Saudi Arabia. The three oil sands projects combined cover an area larger than England, and hold proven oil reserves amounting to 1.75 trillion barrels. Many pundits talk about US dependence on foreign oil, and most look to Saudi Arabia and Iraq, but the simple truth is that Canada supplies more black gold to the United States than any other nation.

The Problem

Ah, but here’s the rub. It’s not the bubblin’ crude of Beverly Hillbillies fame. It’s heavy, thick oil. In Canada, the earth doesn’t relinquish her bounty easily, and this oil needs serious processing before it becomes usable. It’s a dirty, dirty business. In fact, Alberta oil holds three or four times the greenhouse gases found in other crude.

But that doesn’t matter, because Tar Sands oil is highly profitable, especially with prices bouncing around $100 per barrel. The oil companies have invested more than $100 billion in the various oil sands projects, and the scale is expected to grow dramatically – by five fold – because the world, and the US in particular, needs more oil, and our federal government is pushing development.

Amazingly, the Conservative government gives tax breaks to companies active in the Tar Sands. Our money goes to pillage the environment.

Of course, pillage is a loaded word, but it applies, and I have no qualms about using it. Several of Canada’s First Nations live downstream from the oil sands, and still live off the land. One study suggested that moose meat from this region has 453 times the acceptable level of arsenic. Of course, the Alberta government calls that figure preposterous, and claims that arsenic levels are only 33 times as high as they should be. As if that fact should be comforting.

The Environmental Defense Fund points to a surge in cancer rates among some communities in Northern Alberta, and calls the Tar Sands projects a toxic moonscape.

It’s hard to argue with their data, or their conclusions:

By 2020, the two most active companies in the area will have created tailing ponds of toxic sludge that cover more than one billion cubic meters. Birds that land on these ponds will die within minutes.

Benzene, one of the most lethal human carcinogens, is released by Alberta’s Tar Sands into the atmosphere at a rate of 100 tonnes per year; it could be as high as 800 tonnes per year by 2015, if planned expansions occur. How much of that makes it to Saskatchewan? To Quebec? To Nova Scotia. We used to have a vibrant salmon fishery in Nova Scotia but the salmon population was killed by acid rain that was generated by pollution coming from the America industrial belt near Ohio. So I suspect some Tar Sands pollution makes it into the east, and that BC and Saskatchewan are getting battered.

According to the Environmental Defence Fund, “in 2005, existing facilities in the area produced 19,000 tonnes of nitrogen oxide and 20,100 tonnes of sulphur dioxide. In October 2007, the province proposed airshed targets of 25,000 tonnes of nitrogen oxide and 28,000 tonnes of sulphur dioxide per year, a growth in emissions for an already polluted area. And if experience is any guide, companies may be able to incur a financial penalty to exceed these limits.”

But Canadians shouldn’t be the only people raising an eyebrow to what is happening in Alberta. BP is expanding it’s facility in Indiana so it can process more heavy Canadian oil. The state legislatures have already given them a pollution waiver to send more toxins into Lake Michigan. In fact, tar sands oil is already being processed in Colorado, Missouri, Ohio, Wisconsin and Pennsylvania.

Remember this heavy oil is heavy with greenhouse gases.

Warming the Planet, Alberta Style

In fact, the Tar Sands account for 40 million tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions. Alberta, with just 10 percent of Canada’s population, emits 40 percent of our country’s greenhouse gases. If we don’t do anything to stop it, the Tar Sands could be producing 142 million tonnes of GHG by 2020, so about 20 percent of the entire country’s emissions could come from this one project. Even if the rest of Canada goes crazy embracing the climate-change mantra, it doesn’t matter, because Alberta’s policies will ensure that we won’t meet any environmental commitments we make. In fact, Canada’s emissions are growing at a rate that exceeds any other country, and the Tar Sands are playing a huge role.

Now, as I was writing this, the Canadian government has crafted new regulations that call for industry-wide reductions in carbon emissions, phased in slowly over many years. It’s a start, but nothing more than a band-aid solution.*

So what does Alberta owe the rest of Canada?

It’s a complicated issue. Canada has unfortunate regional disparities, with the wealthiest three provinces giving money to federal government to distribute to the seven less-wealthy provinces. It’s part of the fabric of this country, but it’s created acrimony. People understandably don’t like parting with hard-earned cash. Back in the 1980s, when iconoclastic Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau enacted a National Energy Program that taxed oil revenues at a rate higher than other natural resources, thousands of Albertan bought bumper stickers that proclaimed the west should Let the Eastern bastards freeze together in the dark.

It is funny, but if you’re one of those eastern bastards, it hurts too.

But it’s also short-sighted. Alberta is a wealthy province by dint of its geology, not because Albertans are more industrious or brighter than anyone in Atlantic Canada or Manitoba. Some Albertans understand that, even if our illustrious Prime Minister Stephen Harper does not, chastising Atlantic Canada for wallowing in “a culture of defeat.”

I wonder if he would have said the same about his adopted province’s brothers and sisters two generations ago? As many Canadians know, Alberta was a have-not province until oil was discovered in the 1940s.

So should wealthy Alberta — where the standard of living is high, taxes are low, and everyone can find work — be made to clean up its act?

Carbon Capture and Sequestration

Perhaps a few other facts will help you see this dilemma as I do. The first is that the technology exists to clean up Tar Sands oil production. It’s called carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) and it can work, although many competing technologies exist. You can pull most of the GHG from the oil and store them safely underground — in fact, the carbon can be liquified and stored in the deep empty wells that once held oil. Norway’s Statoil strips one million tons of carbon from North Sea Oil every year and pumps it into a saline aquifer, proving that you can be a responsible oil company and still make money.

Admittedly, oil companies don’t want to embrace CCS because it’s expensive. They can make a lot more money simply by pouring their toxins into the atmosphere. Don’t get me wrong; they’d still make money by employing CCS technology. Just not as much.

But they’d still want to do business in Alberta. And they are making money. In 2006, Suncor made $3 billion in profits. The Canadian Oil Sands Trust, which owns one-third of Syncrude, made $834 million.

What do those companies owe the rest of us? A few well paying jobs? Or has the time come for more corporate social responsibility?

After all, the resources belong to all of us, and to Albertans in particular. Why should they profit without first protecting us?

Our Prime Minister doesn’t believe natural resources belong to Canadians, just to the highest bidder. And he’s positively weak-kneed and ineffective at protecting our environment. In last month’s budget, Harper and Finance Minister Jim Flaherty could have taken steps that would have killed two birds with one stone; he could have encouraged carbon capture and spurred renewable energy.

David Suzuki Foundation to the rescue

As the David Suzuki Foundation described in a fascinating report released in February, a progressive Carbon Tax would reduce Canada’s GHG emissions significantly over the next dozen years while giving our country the wherewithal to meaningfully embrace new green technologies. And it won’t affect our GDP, and may even enhance it.

This is how it is being done around the world, particularly in the European Union, but they simply don’t have the energy reserves or natural resources that we do. By 2020, a carbon tax would have the potential to add $50 billion annually to federal coffers, which could be used to support renewable energy, make homes energy efficient, and reduce personal taxes.

It would begin slowly, perhaps at $10 per tonne next year, increasing by $10 per tonne each year to $100 in 2019. Tar sand companies – and companies across the country – can reduce the taxes they pay by reducing emissions. With oil at $100 a barrel, oil companies will continue to work the Tar Sands, and they will still make huge profits. We just won’t have to suffer for their transgressions.

So we start polluting less, and we start investing in worthy renewable and sustainable projects. For instance, in Nova Scotia, we have 5,000 miles (8,000) in undulating coastline with a long continental shelf. By using proven technologies, in the next decade or two, we could have bountiful renewable carbon-neutral energy produced by wind and wave farms, and Nova Scotia Power wouldn’t need gas or coal. In fact, I’ve been told by someone who knows that wind and wave energy from Nova Scotia has the potential to power all of Atlantic Canada, Quebec, and a sizable chunk of the US.

Imagine that world. And know this: We can get there from here.

But not with Stephen Harper at the helm. He’s beholden to the oil barons, and the status quo. He doesn’t care about eastern Canada, so I think we should elect someone who does. Someone who will embrace a Green vision of the future. We have three national parties who promise to do so in the Liberals, The Green Party, and the NDP, with the support of the regional Bloc Québécois.

And when Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New Brunswick become the Saudi Arabia of renewable energy, I promise not to buy a bumper sticker suggesting that those western bastards can freeze together in the dark. Because even now, as they destroy the planet, those Western Bastards are my brothers and sisters.

_________________________

*The Sierra Club had this to say about Canada’s new regulatory framework: “In contrast, the Federal government’s announcement delays emissions reductions from new coal plants and tar sands projects by only requiring those coming into operation in 2012 or after to reduce emissions by 2018 at the earliest. In addition, the government has further weakened the regulatory framework by allowing polluters to buy their way out of 100% of their emissions reductions target by paying into a technology fund, without any guaranteed emissions reductions. 

“Delaying emissions reductions from new projects sends a perverse signal to industry to get as many new projects as possible approved before 2012 and thus avoid having to make reductions even by 2018,” said Emilie Moorhouse, Atmosphere and Energy Campaigner. “Instead of urgent action, this government’s response to climate change is all about delay.”

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment »

Dangerous Alberta highway claims another victim after two semis collide

Posted by mhudema on March 25, 2008

Latest Headlines
 

FORT MCMURRAY, Alta. _ Another motorist has died on a busy highway that links Alberta´s oilsands with the rest of the province _ a highway that saw 10 people die in accidents last year.

RCMP in Fort McMurray say an Edmonton trucker has died after two semis collided on Highway 63 north of the Syncrude oilsands plant around 6 p.m. Friday.

Cpl. Monica Schimanke said in an interview Saturday that the first semi, hauling a trailer, had slowed down because the roadway was congested with traffic.

A pickup travelling behind the trailer swerved to avoid a collision, but she says the driver of another semi travelling behind the pickup couldn´t stop in time, she said.

“He swerved to the right. The cab of the second semi collided with the trailer of the second semi and as a result, he ended up in the right-hand ditch,” Schimanke said.

The trucker was wedged into the crumpled cab, and eventually he had to be cut out of the mangled wreck by emergency crews, she said.

“He was transported to Fort McMurray hospital and was then flown to a hospital in Edmonton where he succumbed to his injuries,” Schimanke said.

The name of the man hasn´t been released pending notification of his family.

The pickup driver, and the driver of the first semi, weren´t injured in the incident.

Highway 63, a main artery that stretches over 400 kilometres between Edmonton and the oilsands, is often crowded with traffic and has gotten a reputation for being a deadly stretch of road.

Between 2001 and 2005, there were over 1,000 collisions on the highway, killing 25 people and injuring 257 others.

There are often big lineups of traffic along the stretch of single-lane highway where the latest accident happened, about 45 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Schimanke said.

“There is a lot of traffic there. Workers coming to and from the (plant) and traffic going up and down the highway all the time, so it is a busy piece of road,” she said.

“There´s a lot of heavy traffic on that road. There is a lot of equipment moving back and forth at all hours of the day,” Schimanke said.

Political and labour leaders have been lobbying the Alberta government for years to twin the highway between Edmonton and the oilsands capital

The provincial government has committed $820 million to twinning the road but has been criticized for not expediting the work.

In 2005, six oilsands workers were killed when their bus was hit by a tractor trailer on another rural highway north of Edmonton.

Several passengers had been standing outside the bus, as the bus driver tried to turn the large vehicle around on the highway.

The truck driver was later charged with 27 dangerous driving-related charges.

 

Posted in Uncategorized | Tagged: , , , , , | Leave a Comment »